The city of Mucugê is one of the oldest in the Chapada Diamantina region. Of previous indigenous occupation, was founded at the end of the 18th century. It has, as a striking feature, the ancient colonial Portuguese-style houses. The place was an important shopping center in the nineteenth century: the economy of the time revolved around gold mining and, above all, diamonds. It is said that, due to the importance of the city at that time, Mucugê even had an "embassy" of France.
Reports from the elders of the region claim that the Mucugê of the nineteenth century, at its economic apex, came to house a number close to 30000 people, and that, after the decay of the mining activity, the population plummeted dramatically until it came very close to what is Currently, the period of the largest population decrease the years of the 1980. Already in the years 1990, the population grew again due to the impetus of tourism and highly mechanized business agriculture brought by large groups of entrepreneurs from the south of the country, from the interior of the state of São Paulo and some foreign groups, such as Japanese.